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Chlorpromazine

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Drug Description

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Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication. It is primarily used to treat psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Other uses include the treatment of bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, nausea and vomiting, anxiety before surgery, and hiccups that do not improve following other measures. It can be given by mouth, by injection into a muscle, or into a vein.Common side effects include movement problems, sleepiness, dry mouth, low blood pressure upon standing, and increased weight. Serious side effects may include the potentially permanent movement disorder tardive dyskinesia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and low white blood cell levels. In older people with psychosis as a result of dementia it may increase the risk of death. It is unclear if it is safe for use in pregnancy. Chlorpromazine is in the typical antipsychotic class. Its mechanism of action is not entirely clear but believed to be related to its ability as a dopamine antagonist. It also has anti-serotonergic and antihistaminergic properties.Chlorpromazine was developed in 1950 and was the first antipsychotic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Its introduction has been labeled as one of the great advances in the history of psychiatry. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between US$0.02 and US$0.12 per day. In the United States the wholesale costs is about US$7.80 per day as of 2019.

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