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Clonidine

dm+d VMPP - 1086311000001100

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Clonidine, sold as the brand name Catapres among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug withdrawal (alcohol, opioids, or smoking), menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions. It is used by mouth, by injection, or as a skin patch. Onset of action is typically within an hour with the effects on blood pressure lasting for up to eight hours.Common side effect include dry mouth, dizziness, headaches, and sleepiness. Severe side effects may include seeing or hearing things that other people do not, heart arrhythmias, and confusion. If rapidly stopped, withdrawal effects may occur. Use during pregnancy or breastfeeding is not recommended. Clonidine lowers blood pressure by stimulating α2 receptors in the brain, which results in relaxation of many arteries.Clonidine was patented in 1961 and came into medical use in 1966. It is available as a generic medication. As of 2019 a month of medication costs the NHS about £8. In the United States this amount costs about US$2.70 as of 2019. In 2016 it was the 76th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 10 million prescriptions.

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