dm+d VMPP - 958211000001109
Dihydrocodeine is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic prescribed for pain or severe dyspnea, or as an antitussive, either alone or compounded with paracetamol (acetaminophen) (as in co-dydramol) or aspirin. It was developed in Germany in 1908 and first marketed in 1911.Commonly available as tablets, solutions, elixirs, and other oral forms, dihydrocodeine is also available in some countries as an injectable solution for deep subcutaneous and intra-muscular administration. As with codeine, intravenous administration should be avoided, as it could result in anaphylaxis and life-threatening pulmonary edema. In the past, dihydrocodeine suppositories were used. Dihydrocodeine is available in suppository form on prescription. Dihydrocodeine is used as an alternative to codeine. It was first described in 1911 and approved for medical use in 1948. Dihydrocodeine was developed during the search for more effective cough medication, especially to help reduce the spread of tuberculosis, pertussis, and pneumonia in the years from c.a. 1895 to 1915. It is similar in chemical structure to codeine. Dihydrocodeine is twice as strong as codeine. Although dihydrocodeine does have extremely active metabolites, in the form of dihydromorphine and dihydromorphine-6-glucuronide (one hundred times more potent), these metabolites are produced in such small amounts that they do not have clinically significant effects.Dihydrocodeine is also the original member and chemical base of a number of similar semi-synthetic opioids such as acetyldihydrocodeine, dihydrocodeinone enol acetate, dihydroisocodeine, nicocodeine, and nicodicodeine.
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