dm+d VMPP - 1001911000001105
Ketoconazole, sold under the brand name Nizoral among others, is an antifungal medication used to treat a number of fungal infections. Applied to the skin it is used for fungal skin infections such as tinea, cutaneous candidiasis, pityriasis versicolor, dandruff, and seborrhoeic dermatitis. Taken by mouth it is a less preferred option and only recommended for severe infections when other agents cannot be used. Other uses include excessive hair growth and Cushing’s syndrome.Common side effects when applied to the skin include redness. Common side effects when taken by mouth include nausea, headache, and liver problems. Liver problems may result in death or the need for a liver transplantation. Other severe side effect when taken by mouth include QT prolongation, adrenocortical insufficiency, and anaphylaxis. It is an imidazole and works by affecting the production of ergosterol required for the fungal cell membrane thereby slowing growth.Ketoconazole was patented in 1977 and came into medical use in 1981. It is available as a generic medication and formulations that are applied to the skin are over the counter. A 30-gram tube in the United Kingdom costs the NHS less than £5 as of 2019. In the United States the wholesale cost of this amount is about US$6.30. In 2016 it was the 205th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 2 million prescriptions. The formulation that is taken by mouth was withdrawn in Europe and Australia in 2013 and in China in 2015. In addition, its use was restricted in the United States and Canada in 2013.
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