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Tamoxifen, sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a medication that is used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men. It is also being studied for other types of cancer. It has been used for Albright syndrome. Tamoxifen is typically taken daily by mouth for five years for breast cancer.Serious side effects include a small increased risk of uterine cancer, stroke, vision problems, and pulmonary embolism. Common side effects include irregular periods, weight loss, and hot flashes. It may cause harm to the baby if taken during pregnancy or breastfeeding. It is a selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) and works by decreasing the growth of breast cancer cells. It is a member of the triphenylethylene group of compounds.Tamoxifen was initially made in 1962 by chemist Dora Richardson. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Tamoxifen is available as a generic medication. The wholesale price in the developing world is about US$0.07–0.23 per day. In the United States, it costs about $1 per day. In 2016, it was the 238th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 2 million prescriptions.
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